Cannabis sativa is a tall annual plant which at maturity ranges in height from 3 to 16 feet and grows on the average to 6 to 8 feet. The leaves, usually seven to a stem, are dark green on top, hairy, with sawtooth edges. The stalks are fluted. The male and female plants are similar in appearance until maturity, when their flowers differ. The male plant produces prominent flowers which shed pollen freely.
The female flowers grow amidst a profusion of small leaves and stems at the tip of the plant. The male plant yields fibers, or hemp, but is no longer cultivated for this purpose in the United States, imported Manila hemp or synthetics such as nylon being used in- stead. The female plant yields hard-hulled fruit containing seeds and more copiously than the male produces the resin containing tetrahydrocannabinol, the active principle with hallucinogenic properties.
The resin is most abundant at maturity. These flowering tops, twigs, and leaves of the female plant are dried either naturally in the sun, or artifically by low-temperature baking in a stove and are smoked like tobacco for their hallucino- genic effects. This dried product is known in North America as marijuana and in India as bhang. Compare nickel bag, dime. Culti- vation in India, Nepal, and Sinkiang, China, has been brought to a fine art.
Special techniques include preventing pollination of the female plants so that they produce more resin, trimming off the top leaves and dwarfing the plant, growing the plants in upland areas under hot sun which seems to increase the pharmacological potency of the resin , and laboriously collecting the resin on cheese- cloth by hand and scraping it off so that none is wasted. Combined with alcohol, liquid chloral hydrate can in- duce acute intoxication, resembling an overdose of barbiturates, and coma.
Excessive, long-term use of chloral hydrate can result in both PSYCHIC dependence and physical dependence, with a characteristic pattern of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is abruptly stopped. The toxic oral dose is approximately 10 grams, while the hypnotic sleep-inducing dose is 0. Its derivatives include trifluoperazine and perphenazine. Preparations may contain one of the following ingredients in combination with nonnarcotic ingredients, and no narcotics order or prescription is required by law: They may be pre- scribed by ordinary prescription form like any other drug.
The cleaner his lot, the less bulk and the lower his profits. When sniffed usually from a rag or a plastic bag , the fumes produce an intoxi- cation, initially accompanied by exhilaration and excitement, un- coordinated actions, slurred speech, double vision, buzzing in the ears, and, rarely, hallucinations. After thirty to thirty-five minutes, drowsiness, stupor, and unconsciousness ensue. The fumes are irri- tating to the mucous membranes, are extremely toxic, and can cause damage to the kidney, liver, brain, and bone marrow.
In their delirium users have been known to fall off rooftops with fatal re- sults. Death can also result especially among young people, the COC. Before the arrival of Spanish explorers the Incas chewed coca leaves and considered them divine. In Paris the leaves were infused into wine by Angelo Mariani, who ealled his mixture vin coca mariana, a popular nineteenth-century beverage in Europe.
It was also an in- gredient of the soft drink Coca-Cola until , when federal au- thorities proscribed such use. The bush is grown in Bolivia, Peru, and Java, and most of the cocaine in illicit traffic originates in these countries. In its pure form, eocaine is a white crystalline powder. Drug users take it for its almost violently stimulant and euphoric effects, the favored modes of ingestion being sniffing and injection cocaine loses potency when taken by mouth.
Those who inject cocaine often mix it with heroin or inject heroin subsequently in order to dampen the hyperexcitability the cocaine induces. Cocaine acts upon the central nervous system to produce a euphoric excitement and hallucinatory experiences. The euphoria is relatively short-lived, and habitual users of the drug inject it as often as every ten minutes. When injected in small doses at frequent intervals as mueh as 10 grams has been taken in a day.
On the other hand, some authorities consider a single dose of around 1. Lesser doses have been fatal, however; and when an injected toxic dose reaches the heart, death comes too rapidly for any effective therapy. The body does not develop significant tolerance to cocaine; i. I smelled the sharp sickly sweet odor of the cocaine My palms were dripping S'teai He bad the spike ui his nght hand He grabbed my forearm Mtih his left hand 1 umed my bead and closed my eyes I bit dovm on my bottom bp waiting for the stabbing plunge of the needle He said DamnI You got some beautiful bnes veins I shivered when si daggered in I opened my eyes and looked My blood had shot up into the dropper He svas pressing the bulb I saw the blood streaked bquid draining into me.
It vtas like a ton of nitro exploded inside me My ucfcer went berserk I could feel it clawing up my throat It was like I had a million swipes m every pore from head to toe It was like they were all poppmg off together in a nerve shredding climax I was quivering like a jtdeer in the hot seat at the first jolt 1 tried to open my talc dry mouth I couldn t 1 was paratj-zed I could feel a hot bait of puke raang up from my careemng guts 1 saw the green sunkmg puke cope arch mto the black mouth of the waste basket 46 COCKTAIL I felt like the top of my skull had been crushed in.
It was like I had been blown apart and all that was left were my eyes. Then tiny prickly feet of ecstasy started dancing through me. I heard melodious bells tolling softly inside my skull. I looked down at my hands and thighs. A thrill shot through me. Surely they were the most beautiful in the Universe. An alkaloid of opium naturally occurring in the juices of the unripe pod of the white poppy, Papaver somniferum.
It is usually extracted by methylization of morphine, another natural alkaloid. In its general pharmacodynamic action codeine resembles morphine, but the effects are much milder. Since it has only about one-sixth to one-tenth the analgesic action of an equivalent amount of morphine, it is used only in minor pain. The usual recommended dose is 30 to 60 milligrams; milligrams gives analgesia equal to that of 10 milligrams of morphine, the minimal analgesic dosage. As an effective antitussive, codeine, like morphine, is a common ingredient in cough medicines.
Other side effects of codeine are constipation and sometimes nausea. Large doses have a paradoxical stimulant effect. It is considered only mildly addictive, instances of codeine addiction being rare, though not unknown. Addicts seeking to withdraw themselves from heroin or unable to obtain heroin use codeine to alleviate their withdrawal symptoms.
In sufficient quantities this is effective, but when the codeine is stopped, the withdrawal symptoms have the same severity as those by heroin dependence. The nonaddictive drug propoxyphene Darvon has analgesic effects of intensity and dura- tion equivalent to those of codeine but with fewer side effects. Nevertheless most addicts undergo cold turkey at one time or another because they have no money for drugs or have lost their connection.
They do not fear the withdrawal symptoms, and their alleged fear is not the prime reason for using drugs. When the arm vein has collapsed, the addict starts on a new one in leg, hand, neck, or foot, sometimes continuing until he has none left. Some old addicts then revert to subcutaneous injection skin popping. Compare boo, dropper, works.
Compare bring down, HIGH. In despair where the lids were swollen The heart that was pounding and writhing And ears where the sounds were screaming And the mind that was ashen and still. Agents get it too. Take Bradley the Buyer. Well the Buyer comes to look more and more like a junky. His teeth fall out. The Buyer takes on an ominous grey-green color. Fact is his body is making its own junk or equivalent. Among college students it is obtained by having four or five crowd into a closet.
One or two actually smoke, and the others inhale the fumes that accumulate in the enclosed area. Often a thin wire is wrapped around the whiskey-bottle cap so that it can be held without burning the fingers. The handle of the spoon may be bent for the same reason. Dexeokine tablets cop sickoess. But crashing means nothing more sinister than going on the nod, either from booze or simple fatigue.
When this happens — if the unfortunate has not found a safe hiding place — the others will immediately begin tormenting him. The most common penalty for crashing is the urine shower; those still on their feet gather quietly around the sleeper and soak him from head to foot. I had cultivated a crater and always shot through the same hole. It sure looked awful, though. On some days the creep may acquire a large amount of drugs in this manner and on others very little.
Hence, if during his successful period he acquires a large habit, he is forced, during lean periods, to support it by for him desperate measures such as stealing. Since he is inex- perienced and probably unskilled at this, he is more likely to be arrested than the more skilled hustlers. Compare making a croaker for a reader.
Actually, of course, the heroin has already been cut way down before we even get it. So the guy on the street gets maybe five percent. The quinine is just to cut the sweet taste of the sugar. So we put in the quinine to make it bitter. The rest is pretty much obvious. You can see how it works just by watching.
Any questions just ask. He took a wire coat hanger that had been spread open and covered with nylon from a stacking, and put it in front of him on the glass-topped table. Then he opened one of the ounce envelopes and carefully emptied the contents onto the nylon. He lifted the coat-hanger-and-nylon sieve and shook it gently, sifting the heroin through the nylon onto the table.
He shook it slowly, almost tenderly, taking great care not to let the sifted heroin spread too much. When he was through, the heroin sat in a high fluffy mound, almost twice the volume he had started with. He took a razor blade and carefully scraped the heroin that had drifted away from the edge of the mound back toward the center. Next he took a whisky shot glass, filled it once with heroin, and emptied it onto the coat-hanger-nylon sifter. He added two shots each of milk sugar and quinine.
He mixed the chemicals together on the nylon, then sifted the whole mess again. Now everyone pitched in. The three men at the table and Santo and Bobby each took baby measuring spoons and dipped them into the mound of cut heroin. When each had a spoonful, he leveled it off with a razor blade and dumped it in a neat pile on the glass. After they had about ten piles, one of the men started shoveling each pile into one of the stamp-sized bags.
Everyone else measured, and the one man bagged. When everything was in bags, Bobby and Santo started folding them over and sealing them shut with Scotch tape. Finally everything was cut and all the bags were rubber-banded together in bundles of twenty-five bags each. Hundreds of bundles were stacked up on the table. Datura stramonium] in India, thieves surreptitiously mixed datura with hashish and of- fered it to their victims. The interaction of the two drugs causes mental derangement followed by coma.
In addition to Datura stramonium, several other species are found in the southwestern United States and Mexico, the main ones being D. The species found in the Andes include D. The Indians of these regions often pulverize the seeds and mix them with locally brewed beers. The intoxication produced begins with the characteristic excitation, sometimes so extreme that the drinker becomes violent and has to be forcibly restrained. This is followed by a deep' sleep, marred by dreams and hallucinations, which the witch doctor often interprets as an aid to diagnosing diseases, discovering culprits, or predicting the future.
Datura stramonium, a plant of the potato family Solanaceae containing poisonous alkaloids with narcotic and hallucinogenic properties. It contains the alkaloids stramonium, hyoscyamine, and atropine. One would blow a Feather in the Air; another would dart straws at it with much Fury; and another stark naked was sitting up in a Corner, like a Monkey grinning and making Mows at them; a Fourth would fondly kiss and paw his Companions, and snear in their Faces, with a Countenance more antik than any in a Dutch Droll.
In this frantik Condition they were confined, lest they in their Folly should destroy themselves; though it was observed that all their Actions were full of Innocence and Good Nature. Used by peddlers so that they can rid their person of narcotics quickly the moment they spot a police officer. We just take it [heroin] and put it in the bag. It all depends on how much you got and how fast you deck up. Demerol, [meperidine hydrochloride, Winthrop Laboratories] a synthetic opiate used as an analgesic and sedative, Demerol is one of the most widely used of the synthetic opiates, especially as an analgesic in childbirth.
It is also, perhaps because of this accessibil- ity in hospitals and the mistaken view that it is not addictive, the most frequent choice of medical personnel who became addicts and who prefer it to morphine. The usual clinical dosage is 50 to milligrams repeated at three- to four-hour intervals. Demerol does not produce so much sedation as morphine, nor is it so effective in severe pain, but it causes less nausea, constipation, or vomiting. Danger of respiratory depression is relatively small except when administered intrave- nously.
WHO recommended that the term drug dependence be sub- stituted, defining it as follows: Manufacturer warns against exceeding 15 milligrams in a single dose. Sold in ampuls and tablets, upon which is inscribed the Abbott symbol a. Subject to the Drug Abuse Control Amendment of Tolerance to the drug may develop during prolonged administration. In such cases careful supervision is essential to avoid excessive dosage or abuse which can lead to chronic intoxication and addiction.
If this should occur, psychotic manifestations of chronic amphetamine intoxication may require temporary sedation. The drug should be withdrawn without delay. Lethargy, which may persist for some weeks, has been seen following withdrawal. Methamphetamine should not be used to combat fatigue or to replace rest in normal persons. The occurrence of paradoxically increased depression or agitation in mentally depressed patients is an indication for withdrawing the drug. Manu- facturer recommends as an aid in dieting, in mild depressive states, and as a mood elevator.
Recommended maximum daily dose 15 milligrams of d-amphetamine sulfate and 97 milligrams of amo- barbital. It is sold as elixir, sustained-release capsules Spansules , or tablets, with contents as follows: The tablets are flat, three-sided, green, and scored down the middle. Long-term use may result in psychic dependence and PHYsiGiAL dependence on the amobarbital and increasing tolerance to both ingredients. Dexedrine tablets dextromorannde a synthetic opiate analgesic, dextromorarmde has a somewhat higher pain relieving potency than uorphine 5 to 7 5 milligrams injected equal the analgesic effects of 10 imibgratm of morphine, with the effects lasting four to five houn physical dependence occurs after prolonged use, but ivithdraival symp- toms are similar to those of methadone dependency and less severe than those of morphine or heroin Dcxtromoramide is sold under the trade name Palfium A ta-Ass A narcotic.
A class B narcotic. Al- though derived from morphine, Dilaudid is a much more potent pain reliever. Injections of 2 milligrams provide the analgesia of 10 to 15 milligrams of morphine or milligrams of meperidine, with effects lasting four to five hours. There is less nausea, vomiting, and sedation than with morphine, physical dependence develops after prolonged use, and the withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of morphine in severity.
Dilaudid is sold in small white saccharinelike tablets 1, 2, 3, or 4 milligrams , as rectal suppositories yellow, shaped like the upper half of a bowling ball , and ampuls for injection. Dilaudid Cough Syrup contains 1 milligram of Dilaudid hydrochloride and milligrams of glyceryl guaiacolate per teaspoonful, in a reddish- orange peach-flavored syrup. Recommended adult dosage is 1 tea- spoonful repeated in three to four hours.
Possibly one, definitely two would get me straight. I mean a Dilaudid habit is no good. First of all, your habit on Dilaudid you get it much faster than you do on stuff [heroin]. It goes up fantastically high. I can con anyone. Other mental disorganization occurred, especially dis- orientation as to time and place. Changes in perception altered the form, distance, movement, and color of objects. Subjects sank into a state of immobility, occasionally making slow, aimless movements of the hands and mouth.
Also called diamba, liamba, lianda, and maconha. It is easily synthesized with rudimentary equipment and common ingredients, and there is evi- dence that illicit use is on the increase. The onset of the drug occurs within two minutes, and its effects last upward of thirty minutes. My desperate attempts to climb toward sunlight and release from horror occupied the reminder of the experience — barely thirty min- utes by clock time, but an infinite eternity subjectively during which I experienced total evolution, from the primary amoeboid stage, crawling and grasping for something to hold onto even though I was on the floor, slowly and then ever more rapidly growing and hurtling through both time and space.
Donald Louria, Nightmare Drugs dogie. Doses of thirty times the hypnotic dose 15 grams have been taken in suicide attempts, resulting in prolonged coma, absence of reflexes, high fever, and occasionally death. Taken in combination with alcohol or other sedatives which potentiate its action , Doriden has caused fatal respiratory and circulatory failure. Symptoms range from anxiety to grand mal major epilepticlike seizures.
Chronic Doriden intoxication, which can appear when amounts of 1. Doriden is supplied in tablets of 0. Compare bring down, bum kicks. Under the act, no person may possess any of the proscribed drugs except for his personal use or for the use of members of his family or for administration to an animal owned by him or his house- hold; persons who manufacture, process, sell, deliver, or otherwise dispose of these drugs must keep records of all drugs so handled; prescriptions for these drugs are limited to five refills, and none may be refilled after six months; only authorized manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers, pharmacies, hospitals, clinics, public health agencies, physicians, researchers, and government employees acting in the course of their official duties can sell, deliver, or otherwise dispose of the proscribed drugs.
The act is intended to crack down on the trade in amphetamine and barbiturate drugs and several tranquilizers and non- barbiturate hypnotics and sedatives , whether these drugs have been legitimately manufactured but diverted into the illicit traffic or ille- gitimately manufactured. It is also aimed at stopping the under- ground traffic in hallucinogens, which are mostly manufactured in clandestine laboratories or smuggled in from abroad.
Drugs regulated by the amendment may be subsumed under the following general categories; 1. Drugs containing any quantity of amphetamine or any of its optical isomers containing the same number of elements and atoms but ar- ranged in a different structure, e. Inadequate tolerance can result in a fatal overdose of dyno. Obtained by hydrolysis of cocaine and other coca alkaloids.
Cocaine can also be synthesized from ecognine. A class A narcotic. Compare cutting, sixteenth, spoon. It is very similar in structure to tma, another hallucinogen. Its onset and effects arc similar to those of secobarbital, a short-acting barbiturate. The latter may include convulsions and epileptic- like seizures similar to those accompanying barbiturate dependence.
However, ethchlorvynol is useful as a sedative for patients who are allergic to the barbiturates. Since it is a less- potent central nervous system depressant than the barbiturates, larger amounts milligrams are needed to produce sleep, and only extremely large doses produce fatal respira- tory failure. Dosages ranging from twenty to fifty times the hypnotic dose of milligrams have produced comas lasting a week and sometimes death.
See also ethinamate, Plagidyl, tranquilizers. Its onset and effects are similar to those of secobarbital, a short-acting barbiturate, though of shorter duration. Overdosage can be fatal, but the lethal dose of ethinamate is unknown, a dose of 15 grams proving fatal while a dose of 28 grams was not. The usual sedative dose is 0.
A primary and continuous de- pressant of the central nervous system. The same amount of alcohol taken as beer 1. Thus four average-sized highballs or martinis will produce a concentration in the blood of 0. But this tolerance is nothing like that seen with morphine. Delirium tremens, when severe, has an 8 percent fatality rate. Heroin is applied to the tip of a cigarette which is then smoked. The proportion of heroin varies from 0 to 80 percent; however, it is usually around 1 to 5 percent, or 3 to 15 milligrams.
A ration of drugs since the s. Just enough to fix up or satisfy the addict — EP] 1. In the language of lsd users, one scorns playing the conventional power games and seeks to convert or change what one does not like through the power of innocence and beauty, as symbolized by the flower. An addict who takes large risks in acquiring money for drugs, often in ways that will bring him only small amounts, either because he is a novice and lacks criminal know-how or because he is a convicted burglar known to the police.
The only way he can obtain drugs is to carry drugs for pushers, buy drugs for other addicts, or otherwise expose himself to risks that addicts and pushers prefer to avoid when they can afford to. The North American variety has a whitish, yellowish, or orange-red cap from 3 to 8 inches wide mottled with whitish, yellowish, or reddish warts; in Europe the cap is bright red or purple. Death usually follows the ingestion of one to three of the mushrooms unless the antidote atropine is administered in time.
Death follows delirium, convulsions, and deep coma, and the action of the poison is rapid. In smaller toxic amounts the fly agaric induces vomiting, diarrhea, and rapid breathing. It also causes hal- lucinations, intoxication, gaiety, a form of perception distortion m which small objects such as pebbles seem large and the victim ludicrously tries to step over them, and sometimes paranoia and aggressive behavior. The intoxication always ends with a deep sleep. Such doses, survivable by adults, are usually fatal to children.
The action of the kidneys, as the drug passes through, seems not to affect it and even to enhance its potency. It is kicks man. It is The Kick. You freak out and there is nothing but greatness and madness. Have three sets of clothes, including one "front" with which you can go back into the square world for a job — or an appearance in court if need be. Payment in advance for drugs. Perhaps a corruption of ghanja or gungeon] mari- juana.
The meaning homo- sexual seems dominant nowadays. Perhaps this drug usage surfaced and was broadened to its present meaning. Compare boss] among English teen-agers the word means 1. Canna- bis SATIVA, covered with a sticky resinous exudate that contains the hallucinogenic active principle of the plant in highly concentrated form. Special techniques of cultivation are used in India to increase this resinous exudate. In India ghanja is usually smoked or mixed into cakes and sweetmeats.
This form of cannabis is more potent than bhang the Indian form of marijuana, consisting of the leaves, stems, and twigs and somewhat less potent than charas ha- shish. Glue sniffing was first reported in the United States in ; the s brought a sharp upsurge. In New York City there were 2, cases reported, as compared with in Although manufac- turers no longer sell tubes of airplane glue separately from model kits, it is doubtful that this measure has reduced the practice in the slightest. Glutethimide closely resembles phenobarbital in molec- ular structure; its effects resemble those of secobarbital, a short- acting barbiturate.
Abrupt withdrawal of the drug from one who has become physically dependent will cause withdrawal symp- toms, ranging from anxiety to epileptic grand mal seizures, ac- companied by abdominal cramping, chills, numbness of extremities, and difficulty in swallowing. Newborn infants of mothers dependent upon glutethimide may also suffer withdrawal symptoms. The drug often produces euphoria, as well as generalized sedation, which makes it similar to the barbiturates in its liability to induce psychic dependence in the patient, especially habitual users of other drugs and alcohol, accompanied by a tendency to increase the frequency and amount of the dose.
The drug has been used in suicide attempts, in amounts averag- ing 15 grams, or thirty capsules. Usually Mexican green, because of its origin. This is the cheapest grade. See also addiction, habituation. Drug habituation habit is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include 1 a desire but not a compulsion to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being which it engenders; 2 little or no tendency to increase the dose; 3 some degree of psychic dependence on the effect of the drug, but absence of physical dependence and hence, of an abstinence syndrome; 4 detrimental effects, if any, primarily on the individual [as distinguished from harmful effects upon society].
With the more powerful hallucinogenic drugs, such as lsd, the hallucinations can become startlingly real to the subject, and he may indeed be caught up fully in them for temporary periods. In a small num- ber of cases, the hallucinations persist or recur, to a troubling degree, for weeks or months after the drug has been taken ; in which case, the user may enter a true psychotic state.
As a descriptive term for the drugs or the experience they produce, hallucinogen is rejected by partisans of the drugs, who prefer psychedelic mind-manifest- ing. The term psychotomimetic psychosis-miming is also em- ployed, mainly by the psychiatric profession, but has fallen into disfavor; psychotogenic is more frequent. Hallucinogen has been adopted by journalists with psychedelic a close second , doctors, and federal authorities. Further decisions of the court made it illegal for a doctor to prescribe narcotics to an addict to relieve withdrawal symptoms and keep him comfortable over a period of time maintenance doses.
The federal Bureau of Narcotics has ignored this decision, and physicians have been prosecuted for giving addicts drugs, even though in good faith. In sum, the act says that only persons who have paid the tax on nar- cotics may possess, transfer, prescribe, or manufacture them, and only persons who are authorized to possess, transfer, prescribe, or manu- facture them may pay the tax.
The addict caught with such untaxed drugs in his possession is automatically a criminal and can receive medical treatment only as an adjunct to his incarceration. Two subsequent pieces of narcotics legislation, the Boggs Amendment of and the Narcotic Drug Control Act of , supplemented the Harrison Act by making convictions under it easier and stiffening penalties.
Heroin haschischins, Le club des. Finally, there is no tradition of hashish smoking in the United States, to the extent there is in India and North Africa. On the other hand, hashish is increasingly appearing on the illicit market, most of it smuggled in by tourists from North Africa or Nepal. The earliest encroachments of the drug, like symptoms of a storm that hovers before it strikes, appear and multiply in the very bosom of. The first of them is a sort of irrelevant and irresistible hilarity.
Attacks of causeless mirth, of which you are al- most ashamed, repeat themselves at frequent intervals, cutting across periods of stupor during which you try in vain to pull yourself together. This mirth, with its alternating spells of languor and convulsion, this distress in the midst of delight, generally lasts only for a fairly short time.
Soon the coherence of your ideas becomes so vague, the conducting filament between your fancies becomes so thin, that only your accomplice can understand you. One of the most noticeable sensations resulting from the use of hashish is that of benevolence; a flaccid, idle, dumb benevolence resulting from a softening of the nerves. At this [next] phase of intoxication The ear registers almost imperceptible sounds, even in the midst of the greatest din.
This is when hallucina- tions set in. External objects acquire gradually, and one after another, strange new appearances; they become distorted or transformed. Next occur mistakes in the identities of objects, and transposals of ideas. Sounds clothe themselves in colors, and colors contain music. It sometimes happens that your personality disappears, and you develop objectivity — that preserve of the pantheistic poets — to such an ab- normal degree that the contemplation of outward objects makes you forget your own existence, and you soon melt into them.
A new stream of ideas carries you away: You resemble, do you not? The latter origin seems unlikely. The word has the slight connotation that the head prefers his mental state while under the drug to his normal one. In practice, hal- lucinogens and possibly amphetamines but not opiates, alcohol, or barbiturates. Heavenly Blue, [trade name] a variety of morning glory the seeds of which produce hallucinogenic effects. See morning glory seeds. Compare body drugs, hard narcotics, load.
However, when the drugs were injected intravenously, most former addicts could identify the heroin. And once physical dependence had set in, five- eighths of the former addicts said they preferred heroin for contin- uing administration. What caused them to prefer heroin is another matter, since they described the effects of both drugs as being identi- cal.
Furthermore, though the withdrawal symptoms of heroin dependence are somewhat briefer in duration than those of morphine, they are qualitatively so similar in severity that there seems to be no real difference between them. On the other hand, heroin produces less euphoria when injected intravenously than when injected into the muscle! As a natural alkaloid of opium, morphine, before being refined to a soluble salt so that it can be injected, is in the form of a solid block, which is too bulky for efficient smuggling.
Reduction to heroin provides the most potency with the least bulk half the bulk of morphine, even when the latter is in soluble powder form and the greatest profits. Thus, the preference for intravenous heroin was in part, at least, a matter of habit, in more ways than one. Heroin has become the classic drug of addiction in the United States. One might be a pros- perous doctor who takes regular shots of morphine in order to cope with the strain and stress of a busy practice.
Another might be a fifteen-year-old boy from the slums whose anxieties stem from both the conditions of his existence and an underlying neurosis. At this point, we should note that both of these chose heroin, rather than some other drug; further, many others of the same background and with similar personalities did not choose heroin.
There was, in short, a factor of availability: So there must be avail- ability of the drug as a necessary prerequisite for heroin addiction, and further — and less precisely — there must be an inner need which heroin satisfies and a tendency, partially determined by availability, to seek out escape in drugs. The heroin addict differs from other abusers of drugs because of the drug he has chosen — or that has chosen him.
They encourage aggressive behavior, pseudo masculinity. Probably the alcoholic is acting out some underlying sexual and aggressive drives that he cannot express in a sober state because of his inhibitions and because they are so conflicting and contradictory. Heroin acts to depress sex, aggression, even hunger; in his torpor, the heroin user is free from strivings, relaxed and detached. And the heroin addict suffering from some psychic pain due to inner anxiety arising from unreliev- able subconscious drives and feelings of inadequacy or weak identity palliates this pain by suppressing these drives at their source.
Im- mediately the source of pain is deadened, he experiences euphoria, well-being, detachment from the world, and an almost complete absence of normal human hungers. He does not even desire to defecate. With many users heroin injection has more positive aspects, a kind of sexual pleasure akin to an orgasm and centering in their stomach. In others the initial shock, when the drug is taken intra- venously, is so powerful that it is akin to death, followed moments later by an immense relief at being alive.
It takes less of the drug to produce an effect about two thirds as much , and the initial thnll rush is more immediate, while the dividends are inordinate in relation to the investment — at least at first for now the user is developing tolerance to the heroin and is well on his way to getting hookeo In a hospital, a patient can develop a znild physical depend- ence after about three weeks of daily injections of morphine, and the narcotic antagonist Nalorphine see Nallinb will precipitate Jwt.
But the friend usually is acting as an agent for his pusher; he turns the neophyte on in exchange for money, which he uses to support his own habit. But he must also learn to experience the effects of the drug; he must learn to experience it as the answer to his underlying needs — the inner psychopathology that triggers the intense pleasure he — as distinct from the normal person — experi- ences with heroin from the beginning, and this satisfaction must continue, reinforcing his motivation to repeat.
Thus, each time the drug relieves his anxieties, fears and depression, his desire to use it again is strengthened. Also bound up in this motivation is a pro- found self-hatred and self-destructive drive. The addict is con- sciously committing suicide slowly! The addict learns that nothing else can quite do for him what the heroin does. This conditioning is so powerful that a former addict visiting a place where he suffered withdrawal symptoms years before starts yawning, his nose runs, and so on, even though he has not taken drugs in the interim, and such a visit to his old haunts can set off an intense craving for the drug.
A single shot after years of abstinence will set off withdrawal symptoms. Some addicts even become conditioned to the smell of the match they habitually use to cook up their heroin; and just the smell of a burning match will set off preliminary withdrawal symp- toms. The addict has been conditioned to associate the smell of the match with both his symptoms that accompany his need and with the fiercely demanded relief his body knows will automatically come when the cooking up is finished and the drug injected.
While this cycle is continuing, his body is making a thousand minute cellular adjustments to the drug that is being introduced into it. Now, he finds he must take more to relieve his pain pain is an antidote. There is the constant fluctuation in supplies. A drug panic is the result; the addict finds his sources of supply suddenly dried up, and he must frantically search out another or else suffer withdrawal. Then there is the danger of over- dose; perhaps a pusher who fears arrest dumps on the market a load of especially strong, undiluted heroin.
Given a shot of above 20 percent heroin, the odds are good that he will o. Finally, as his tolerance increases, the addict finds his habit becoming too expensive, beyond his capacity to supply. At this juncture withdrawal is in order. To accomplish this the addict might self-medicate with codeine or Dolophine methadone pills to ease the pains of withdrawal although this is rare; or, more likely, he will undergo withdrawal cold turkey or, if space is available, commit himself to the hospital for a three-week detoxi- fication.
Once detoxified, he can, and most probably will, start anew, shooting up a smaller dosage. This most imperative motive is, then, to achieve a high, not to avoid withdrawal pains. This cycle will probably continue for years, unless he dies and probably half will or does time in prison. The death rate for addicts is over twice that for the normal population. Some addicts, however, continue for years with their addiction. It is processed in Turkey or Syria and turned into blocks of crude morphine weighing one- tenth of a kilo for easier shipment.
Then it is smuggled — often by merchant seamen — to Marseilles. In secret laboratories in France it is then converted into heroin, a fairly sophisticated process chem- ically. Only when the law-enforcement agencies can make a serious dent in the traffic and social agencies can effect a higher percentage of cures among the addicts in the street will heroin ad- diction be brought under control. It will probably never be elimi- nated, however, for the history of mankind shows that there will always be those who cannot live without a chemical crutch.
The mind under heroin evades perception as it does ordinarily; one is aware only of contents. Nor is it that the objects of perception are intrusive in an electric way as they are under mescalin or lysergic acid, nor that things strike one with more intensity or in a more enchanted or detailed way as I have sometimes experienced under marijuana; it is that the perceiving turns inward, the eyelids droop, the blood is aware of itself, a slow phosphorescence in all fabric of flesh and nerve and bone; it is that the organism has a sense of being intact and unbrittle, and, above all, inviolable.
How many hippies achieve a profound and lasting religious experience is, of course, another question; jejune hedonism, escape, and KICKS may be a dominant motive for many, who come from well-to-do middle-class homes and see drugs as a way of rebelling against their parents, to whom hallucinogens and marijuana are unfamilar and repugnant. The publicity surrounding the hippies is wide ; their romantic image attractive abroad. Hit, make, make the man, purchase drugs, since around ; hit it, use a drug — EP.
More probably from the sense of hitting a target] a successful injection of heroin into the vein. You put the spike in slow, and the only way you know you got a hit is by watching the blood come up; then you take off the strap and squeeze it in. Never hold when you can stash. But also perhaps from the initial h sound, like him, harry, and the idea of a powerful steed carrying the rider where it will] heroin.
The intention is to kill an addict who is believed to be informing to the police. Often the poison used is strychnine, which looks and tastes like heroin. I saw the Gimp catch one in Philly. We rigged his room with a one-way whorehouse mirror and charged a sawski to watch it. He never got the needle out of his arm. According to the mores of the addict subculture the good, etc. Difficult to obtain in its pure form, it is rarely used in medicine. Also, from hypodermic, a hypodermic user and hence a morphine or heroin addict; since the s — EP] 1.
No direct accounts of the drug have been published. Physiological effects include increase in blood pressure, increase in body temperature, excitation of secretory glands, and probably stimulation of the cen- tral nervous system. Ingestion of large amounts of ibogaine can be fatal. IT, an indole analog of amphetamines which produces hal- lucinogenic effects. BITURATES jammed up [since the s] taken an overdose of drugs jasper a lesbian jay smoke a marijuana cigarette duq jmel [Arabic] small black datura seeds sold in magic shops in Afarrakesh, which have a halluanogemc effect and probably contain scopoiaminz.
Some heroin users continue to joypop on weekends for years without ever taking it frequently enough to become physically dependent. Many addicts, however, follow the classical route to addiction: Usually, the joypopper injects the drug subcu- taneously. Grass brings you up — up and away. Since heroin was synthesized in and addicts were calling it junk in the early s, either the name was taken from a word for opium or it was coined for heroin.
Another possibility is that. KHAT being readily available and a kind of patent medicine, heroin was considered infenor to opium and m this sense ;unil: But also may be a pun on kick the habit] a relapse, a return to taking drugs after one has been withdrawn from them. Compare a la canona. Probably kick it out has its origin in the muscle spasms the addict endures during with- drawal, and so was extended from meaning withdrawal symptoms to ridding oneself of addiction by undergoing withdrawal.
The toxic oral dose of chloral hydrate, a close rela- tive, is approximately 10 grams. Public Health Service Narcotics Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, where addicts go voluntarily or by court sentence to cure addiction. The study was in two parts: The clinical study was carried out under the supervision of doctors in Goldwater Memorial Hospital. This, the first medici- nal form of opium, was used widely for a variety of diseases up through the nineteenth century. It was sold without prescription, and its addictive liability was not clearly understood.
As a result, many people who took laudanum for various indispositions became addicted, among them such well-known persons as Coleridge, Poe, Moussorgsky, Mrs. I possess a secret remedy which I call laudanum and which is superior to all other heroic remedies. What a resurrection from the lowest depths, of the inner spirit! What an apoc- alypse of the world within me! That my pains had vanished was now a trifle in my eyes; this negative effect was swallowed up in the immensity of those positive effects which had opened up before me, in the abyss of divine enjoyment thus suddenly revealed.
Here was a panacea for all human woes; here was the secret of happiness, about which the philosophers had disputed for so many ages, at once discovered; happiness might now be bought for a penny, and carried in the waist-coat-pocket; portable ecstasies might be had corked up in a pint-bottle; and peace of mind sent down by the mail. In persons addicted to narcotics, Levallor- phan will trigger severe withdrawal symptoms.
Doses of 2 to 3 milligrams of Levo-Dromoran will produce analgesia equal to that produced by 10 milligrams of morphine, lasting four to five hours. After prolonged administration, physical dependence upon Levo-Dromoran will occur, with withdrawal symptoms equal to those of morphine in severity. The recommended clinical dose is 2 milligrams orally or injected subcutaneously. The product is sold in 2-milligram tablets or in solution.
Dosages of 2 to 3 milligrams produce analgesia equal to that produced by 10 milligrams of morphine, lasting four to five hours. Prolonged administration will result in physical de- pendence with withdrawal symptoms similar to those of morphine dependence in severity. A glass A narcotic. Lexington, also called K. Librium is used to treat anxiety, to allay apprehension before surgery, and, in large doses, to alleviate acute panic psychoses, alcoholic anxiety, and para- noid and schizophrenic states.
Usual recommended dosages are from 5 to 10 milligrams three to four times daily up to to milli- gram injections totaling no more than milligrams per day. Fatal over- doses of the drug have been rare, however. Prolonged, excessive use of Librium, i. Compare Mexican loco weed. Lorfan is customarily injected along with the opiate in order to lessen the danger of respiratory depression from the latter without impairing analgesia.
Used alone, Lorfan may itself induce severe respiratory depression; hence, it is recommended that it be administered in conjunction with an opiate except in emergencies. It is also valuable in cases of accidental or deliberate narcotic over- dosages resulting in respiratory depression along with other medical measures. LSD, [d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate For another meaning that puns on this one see ifif] a hallucinogenic semisyn- thetic derivative of lysergic acid, an alkaloid found in the rye fungus ergot, Claviceps purpurea.
The standard laboratory process for mak- ing the drug, developed in by Dr. The effects of the drug vary widely among individuals and are in part related to the dosage, the mental state of the individual at the time he takes it set , and the circumstances in which he takes it setting. The effects also vary with the same individual from time to time; he may have a series of pleasant experiences and then have an extremely unpleasant one.
Because of its unpredictability, many heroin addicts, who are especially prone to experiment with other drugs, do not like LSD. The initial reaction is a vague anxiety and sometimes nausea. The anxiety may be unrelated to the drug; in one experiment a group of subjects was given an inert substance and told it was LSD; all of them experienced a heightened anxiety. The pupils dilate, the appetite is depressed, blood pressure and body temperature are increased, and insomnia follows upon the waning of its action.
Sometimes there is restlessness, paraly- sis, or a suffocating sensation. The effects last from six to fourteen hours, tapering off into waves of alternating normality and abnor- mality. In a few cases they last for several days. A not uncommon postdrug experience, especially among long-time users, is recurrence, the phenomenon of some external or emotional stimulus setting off a more or less intense LSD experience even though the person has not taken the drug; he may not even be aware he is hallucinating — with disastrous results!
This phenomenon can continue for a period of up to eighteen months. Surprisingly only a small percentage about 0. LSD can be detected in the bloodstream up to two hours after it is taken, but the amount is so tiny that especially sensitive laboratory tests are needed. Such transient panic psychoses, then, clear up more or less spontaneously in a day or so.
But the drug has also induced chronic psychoses lasting several months or even longer. It also has induced severe depressions which are sometimes suicidal. The suicide rate in a controlled group was 0. Fatalities have also resulted from accidents occurring while the individual is under the drug, because his grandiose conception of himself and loss of contact with reality impair his judgment.
He may jump out of the window without realizing the hazardousness of his actions. Driving while under the influence of the drug is especially dangerous because of distorted perception. Aggressive acts committed under the influence of LSD are com- paratively rare, yet they have occurred, with sometimes fatal results.
Negative reactions to LSD generally occur among the following types of users: It must be added that negative reac- tions also occur among persons who have taken care to provide themselves with a congenial environment before using the drug or persons who have taken the drug as many as times without adverse effects. Since the number of persons who have taken LSD outside of medical supervision in this country is not known estimates range from 40, to 1 million , it is impossible to say what percentage have psychotic episodes.
An analysis of medically supervised experi- ments with LSD revealed a very low psychosis rate of 0. It is likely that psychotic reactions among unsupervised users is considerably higher than that figure. Certainly, the number of admissions to hospitals for treatment of such psychoses is steadily increasing as use of the drug becomes more widespread. LSD has also been used with varying success m treating autistic schizophrenic children it IS not so effective with adult schttophrenics , as an adjunct to psychotherapy, m fngidity and homosexuality, and to ease the pains of temuna cancer and put the patient in a state of mind in which he is better able to accept his imminent deatli However, LSD is LSD still a highly unpredictable drug, and its pharmacology and psychic potentialities are still only dimly understood.
The adverse publicity inspired by the drug caused its only United States manufacturer, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, to stop mak- ing it and withdraw it from the market. As a consequence, supplies on hand were transferred to the federal government, and the num- ber of research projects with LSD dropped from 72 to Current projects are under the supervision of the National Institute for Mental Health and the Veterans Administration, both governmental agencies. Modern authorities are still not certain as to the nature of the pharmacodynamic action of LSD.
One theory postulates that it acts to block the production of serotonin, a neurohormone found in the brain, or replaces it. Apparently, its action causes the normal pattern of communication from various parts of the body to the brain to break down, so that instead of orderly, selective perception and analysis of incoming sensory data, the brain is deluged by a wide variety of undifferentiated external stimuli and subconscious mate- rial bubbling up in the consciousness at random and perceived in unstructured and startling ways — what Dr.
This tolerance just as rapidly abates, however, cross-tolerance with psilocybin and mescaline also occurs; so that a person who has built up a tolerance to one of these hallucinogens will also be tolerant to LSD, and vice versa. Because the LSD experience is so profound, many users have no desire to repeat it, and others are inclined to use it very frequentlly. Still, psychic dependence does develop among some, who become deeply preoccupied with the drug and persist in its use.
He usually gives up his career and becomes a bohemian or enters the world of the LSD cult. Here the notes in the laboratory journal stop. The last words were written down only with great effort. I asked my laboratory assistant to accompany me home, since I believed that events would take the same course as the disturbance on Friday [his first ingestion of LSD]. But even on the way home — by bicycle — it appeared that all the symptoms were more intense than the first time.
Already I had the greatest difficulty in speaking clearly, and my field of vision wavered and was distorted like the image in a curved mirror. Moreover, on ensuring to make appropriate refund of the approved money, the same applicants do have a possibility to recover the credit score. For more helpful deals including terms and conditions, kids classic tall ugg boots , one can assume a proper research over the online application services.
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Effective remedies for cracked heels can prevent and treat this condition. However, if this skin in this region becomes extremely painful or this problem persists, a consult with a podiatrist might be necessary. They can remove the dead skin in the area using techniques such as debridement. At the same time, they can recommend changes in foot care or even foot wear so that this condition can be prevented in the future.
Although this condition is problematic, there are methods of treating it at home while maintaining proper precautions. Ugg Boots Lo Pro Button Solidify your existing knowledge and expose weaknesses with this hands-on course. Receive recommendations on readiness to take and pass the CCIE Security Lab Exam, along with suggestions of what topics to focus on during further preparation. This bootcamp is based on the most updated lab versions which highly reflect the following topics of the actual lab questions: This course also introduces candidates to the "hands-on" lab experience in order to fully understand how to approach a full-scale CCIE lab.
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The practice of Hatha Yoga will result to the union of the body and the soul, it aims to make the body perfect and fill it with life force. Bhakti YogaBhakti Yoga is the path of heart and devotion or the Yoga of devotion. Yogis who practice Bhakti Yoga sees the Divine in everyone and everything he encounters. This lead him to develop love, acceptance and tolerance for all. Bhaki Yoga teaches a person to have a devotion to God and all things through devotion to life and love.
Raja YogaRaja means "royal". Raja Yoga is the path of Yoga that focuses on meditation and contemplation. This Yoga path teaches deep self respect through self mastery. The self here is honored. Raja Yoga believes that the universe exists for the self, giving the self an illusion of centrality which results to self respect and respect for all creatures.
Raja Yoga is also referred to as the King of Yogas, majority of its practitioners live in spiritual or religious orders. Jnana YogaJnana Yoga is the path of Yoga that deals with wisdom and knowledge or the Yoga of the mind. Jnana Yogis pays tribute on man's intelligence, China Ugg Boots. They try to surpass limitations by unifying intellect and wisdom. Jnana Yoga tries to obtain existence beyond doctrine and ideological controversies by accepting all other philosophies and religion.
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A commercial on TV in which a child shouts out daddy, daddy, guess what, Supra Skytops Red , I only had one cavity is a testimonial of the sad reality of our dental health. Even at the rate of one cavity every six months, assuming the child visits the dentist on the recommended schedule, this child's happy boast actually means that by the age of 21, most of his or her teeth will have had a cavity.
Cavities are found in almost everyone's teeth. It is the effect of various factors, Supra High Tops Red. Similar to heart disease, inherited susceptibility to cavities run within families with no apparent explanation, Wear Supra. Ignoring your personal dental health will not give you the same good teeth as your grandfather. He may have lived in an area where the water supply was naturally high in fluoride. Sweets were not something he consumed.
He most likely brushed his teeth with tooth powder and rinsed with brine. While you have no control of your heredity, there are still other things you can do. One option is to pressure the government to supply the area with fluoridated water. The studies show that drinking fluoridated water cuts the presence of cavities in a child's mouth by half. We can also avoid cases of osteoporosis and weak bones through fluoridation.
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