Pepcid side effects may occur regardless of dosage strengths or adherence to intake instructions. Please inform your doctor if you experience any of the following Pepcid side effects:. Some Pepcid side effects are classified as serious. The following Pepcid side effects are rare and require immediate medical attention if experienced:. Other Pepcid side effects may present themselves. Please contact your doctor if you notice any unusual reactions or symptoms while taking the drug.
Pepcid side effects are regarded as marginal when compared to other prescription medications. Once a prescription medication, Pepcid is now available in many forms as an over-the-counter medication; the drug is universally considered safe for the treatment of heartburn. This alteration was affirmed in when the FDA concluded that there were no serious potential Pepcid side effects. That being said a Pepcid dosage greater than 20 mg still requires a prescription.
The only precaution announced by the FDA concerning Pepcid side effects, was a report that found prolonged QT intervals in patients with impaired renal functions. Because of the lack of side effects, history concerning Pepcid lawsuits is somewhat limitedthe drug simply does not pose a significant threat to its users.
That being said, a few prominent Pepcid lawsuits have been filed concerning fraudulent selling. The most notable Pepcid lawsuit was filed in a New Orleans court in This Pepcid lawsuit was filed by a doctor who alleged that manufacturer Merck was fraudulent in selling vast quantities of Pepcid to hospitals at a discounted price, while still charging Medicaid participants full freight. The Pepcid lawsuit was not settled until As part of the Pepcid lawsuit, the doctor produced documentation of severe Pepcid side effects in elderly patients.
His Pepcid lawsuit alleged that the drug was substituted without his knowledge to elderly patients--use of Pepcid among the elderly increases the risk of Kidney damage. Do not be surprised if phentermine causes some anxiety as a side effect, especially when taken at high doses. The greater the dosage of phentermine you take, the more substantially it activates your sympathetic nervous system via catecholamine release.
This may cause you to exhibit physical symptoms of anxiety and stress such as: Individuals with a preexisting anxiety disorder e. Slight increases in norepinephrine and dopamine may be enough to trigger a full-blown panic attack in vulnerable individuals. The side effect of anxiety may also be related to phentermine-induced modulation of brain waves , specifically increased beta waves and inhibited alpha waves.
However, if the anxiety becomes so extreme that it impairs your ability to function, you may need to quit phentermine. Many users of phentermine report visual changes as a side effect. The most common vision-related side effect is blurred vision. If your vision becomes blurred during phentermine treatment, it is wise to ask your doctor about potential causes and seek a thorough eye examination from an ophthalmologist.
It has been reported that phentermine may worsen eye pressure among those with glaucoma thereby damaging eyesight. In most cases, it is unlikely that phentermine is inflicting direct damage upon your eyesight. For some users blurred vision will subside with continued treatment, but in extreme cases, discontinuation of phentermine may be necessary to restore normative visual perception. A subset of phentermine users document constipation as a side effect of treatment. The constipation may occur along with other side effects such as bloating and upset stomach, and may be extremely unpleasant to deal with.
In extreme cases, constipation may contribute to hemorrhoids due to the fact that while constipated, users may strain to pass a bowel movement which enlarges rectal veins. Those experiencing constipation as a side effect of phentermine may benefit from increasing dietary fiber intake, as well as staying hydrated by drinking more water. Remaining sedentary such as lying down after a big meal may increase susceptibility to constipation as a side effect.
Another way to deal with constipation is to take an over-the-counter laxative or fiber supplement. If no matter what you do, the constipation fails to subside, it may be wise to stop using phentermine. In extreme cases, someone may die as a result of using phentermine. Since phentermine is known to affect heart rate and increase blood pressure, anyone with a history of cardiac events, hypertension, or at risk for cardiac events should avoid phentermine usage.
Medical documentation indicates that a subset of phentermine users may experience fatal lung or heart problems. To avoid dying during treatment, discuss all potential contraindications with your doctor and immediately report any adverse reactions that you experience from phentermine. It is also a good idea to receive regular medical check-ups to ensure that your heart function, lung function, and blood pressure are healthy during treatment.
Many users, especially those that have taken the drug for a long-term will report that it destroys enamel and causes tooth decay. The tooth decay and degradation of enamel may occur as a result of another side effect of phentermine known as xerostomia dry mouth. Phentermine is known to decrease production of oral saliva, which in turn allows pathogenic bacteria in the mouth to proliferate. Proliferation of pathogenic bacteria expedites tooth decay and may even cause gum disease.
Additionally, since your saliva contains specialized proteins and minerals that are known to preserve dental health, when salivary production decreases, dental health tends to decline. To avoid serious dental problems during treatment, seek dental evaluation every 6 months. A side effect of phentermine that may occur immediately, after a short-term, or over a long-term is depression.
It should be speculated that individuals with an underlying neuropsychiatric disorder may be most likely to experience depression as a side effect of phentermine due to the fact that they may be more sensitive to slight alterations in neurochemistry e. Depression as a side effect of treatment may signify that you are unable to tolerate elevated norepinephrine and peripheral catecholamine concentrations. In some cases, depression may result from the fact that the drug kicks their sympathetic nervous system function into overdrive.
Prolonged activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also detrimentally affect physiology and neurobiology to cause depression by altering: In many cases, phentermine users report enhancement of mood during the early weeks of treatment. This preliminary mood enhancement results from the fact that catecholamine concentrations reach supraphysiological level and stimulate limited numbers of receptors.
For those that want to continue using phentermine, it should be advised to work closely with a medical doctor or psychiatrist to adjust dosing to avoid depression. There may also be safe adjunctive agents that can be prescribed for concomitant use to help stabilize mood during phentermine treatment. Although insufficient arousal can result in brain fog cloudy thinking and suboptimal cognitive function, excessive arousal [as may occur from phentermine] can trigger disorganized, rapid, and uncontrollable thinking making it difficult to concentrate.
Should you find it difficult to concentrate while taking phentermine, you may want to discuss a dosage adjustment with your doctor. Usually reducing the dosage of phentermine to amount that provides enough stimulation, but not an excessive amount can facilitate weight loss without impairing your ability to focus. It is also possible that if you have a high homeostatic level of arousal, even the smallest amount of phentermine may impair your concentration.
Perhaps the cumulative neuromodulation exhibited by phentermine such as changes in norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, etc. A common side effect of phentermine is diarrhea or increased frequency of bowel movements. Phentermine may cause diarrhea in some users by modifying concentrations of specific gut-bacteria, as well as by enhancing gastric motility movement of food through the digestive tract.
It is likely that in some phentermine users, the laxative effect of diarrhea may be a mechanism by which weight is lost at a rapid pace. Since diarrhea is an unhealthy way to lose weight, it is recommended to address it as a side effect as soon as it occurs. If you are experiencing diarrhea, you may want to ask your doctor about using an adjunctive antidiarrheal agent e. You may also want to consider that your current diet may me more to blame for the diarrhea than phentermine.
Furthermore, if you are taking phentermine with a large meal, you may want to try taking it on an empty stomach and waiting several hours after administration before eating as this may also help with the diarrhea. On occasion, some individuals will find that the diarrhea is most prominent during the first few weeks of phentermine treatment, but subsides thereafter.
This may be due to a transient adjustment phase in which your gut is adapting to an exogenous substance. Moreover, you may also want to evaluate whether you may be allergic to any additive ingredients within the coating of your phentermine tablet, as these could also provoke diarrhea in select users. Among the most common side effects of phentermine is dizziness. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly what is causing some individuals to experience dizziness as a side effect, but it may be related to heightened sympathetic nervous activation function as induced by phentermine.
Increased sympathetic nervous system activity constricts blood vessels and modulates cerebral blood flow, each of which could help explain the side effect of dizziness. Additionally, some individuals taking phentermine may become anxious or stressed from the increased sympathetic nervous system activity leading them to experience dizziness as a byproduct of the anxiety.
Furthermore, dizziness can occur anytime an individual is adapting to neurochemical changes induced by a drug. Perhaps the increases in central norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are culprits for bouts of dizziness. Moreover, if a person is suffering from micronutrient deficiencies as a result of phentermine-induced appetite reduction, perhaps these may be causing the dizziness. For those that cannot cope with the dizziness experienced as a side effect, urgent medical care is advised.
The dry mouth that occurs during treatment with phentermine may drive you absolutely crazy. Phentermine is capable of reducing production of saliva by disrupting the salivary glands. While most people are willing to sacrifice a bit of dry mouth for weight loss, if the dry mouth becomes extreme, it could cause bad breath halitosis and tooth decay. You may also want to consider chewing sugar-free gum, as this will help stimulate additional production of saliva. Avoiding alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco should also be recommended for those with ongoing dry mouth.
Many phentermine users report that the drug has a positive effect on their mood, so much so, that they report the side effect of euphoria. If you feel euphoric during treatment, know that this feeling cannot be sustained over a long-term and is transient. Euphoria often occurs during the early stages of treatment or in weeks following a dosage increase because the drug stimulates additional catecholamine release.
A greater concentration of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine stimulate receptor sites leading users to feel increased pleasure and experience mood enhancement. The problem is that after awhile, the brain adapts to these increased concentrations and downregulates endogenous production of these chemicals, while also upregulating receptor sites. This causes the euphoria to eventually subside, especially over a long-term.
Moreover, among those with bipolar disorder, the drug could provoke hypomania or mania which are problematic. A side effect of phentermine reported by numerous users is frequent urination polyuria. The sympathomimetic effect of phentermine can trigger the fight-flight response and anxiety, which prompts the body to empty urine while fleeing a predator. The increased fight-flight response activation from phentermine may explain the diuretic effect that users experience.
Drinking a lot of water will certainly increase frequency of urination and could even result in nocturnal enuresis bedwetting during sleep. If you are urinating more frequently than usual during treatment, this side effect should be mentioned to your doctor. Frequent urination may deplete your body of electrolytes and cause hyponatremia low sodium.
Efforts should be taken to normalize urinary frequency and restore all electrolytes that were depleted as a result of frequent urination. A less common adverse reaction to phentermine is hair loss or thinning. Those that experience hair loss as a side effect of phentermine generally notice it after several months of daily treatment. It is unknown exactly what causes hair loss alopecia , but it could be related to a chronically overactive sympathetic nervous system or stress response.
The stress response may also cause telogen effluvium in which large quantities of hair follicles are pushed into a resting phase, and as a result, may fall out upon brushing, combing, or washing your hair. In most cases, hair loss from phentermine is not permanent and healthy hair is restored within several months of drug discontinuation. Phentermine may alter production of hormones, which could be the chief culprit for hair loss.
Certain individuals that lose hair during phentermine treatment may find that lowering their dosage decreases the amount of hair loss that occurs, or prevents it altogether. Others claim that taking specific vitamins and dietary supplements during phentermine treatment may offset drug-induced hair loss. If the hair loss from phentermine becomes bothersome or extreme, do not hesitate to discuss it with your doctor.
Arguably the most frequently reported side effect of phentermine is headache. Since phentermine is a psychostimulant, it is thought to increase vasoconstriction of intracranial blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure and causing headache. Assuming reactive oxygen species increase and free-radical scavengers decrease in response to phentermine treatment, tension-type headaches may occur as a direct result of elevated reactive oxygen species.
Furthermore, phentermine may have a diuretic effect in some users, causing them to become dehydrated. However, if headaches are debilitating and interfere with your ability to function, stopping phentermine under medical supervision may be necessary. Some phentermine users may attain such a significant energy boost after each phentermine dose, that they become hyperactive. It may be that your current dose is overly stimulating and that your hyperactivity would improve if you reduced the dosage.
However, some individuals will find that even the smallest phentermine dose tweaks their neurochemistry in such a way that they feel overly jittery, stimulated, and hyperactive. Those experiencing hyperactivity as a side effect may want to consider daily engagement in relaxation exercises e. A fairly common side effect reported by phentermine users is hypertension high blood pressure. In the event that your blood pressure spikes while taking phentermine, it is important to inform your doctor.
If left untreated, hypertension can cause significant damage throughout the body including: Phentermine increases blood pressure by stimulating the peripheral catecholamine release including norepinephrine and epinephrine. The norepinephrine and epinephrine cause vasoconstriction or a reduction in the diameter of blood vessels, thereby increasing the pressure of blood traveling through those blood vessels. In some cases, hypertension may occur among individuals taking too high of a dose, and a dosage reduction may help mitigate blood pressure spikes.
For this reason, all individuals taking phentermine should monitor blood pressure on a daily basis to ensure that it stays within a normative, healthy range. Moreover, phentermine should never be combined with another psychostimulatory agent, as this may exacerbate the severity of hypertension possibly leading to a hypertensive crisis. There may be certain adjunct medications that your doctor could prescribe along with phentermine e. However, if your blood pressure is so elevated on phentermine that you need beta blockers to correct it you may want to work with your doctor to simply discontinue the phentermine.
There are a multitude of other medications that may help you lose weight without taking a toll on your blood pressure. Insomnia may be more likely to occur among phentermine users that are taking a high dose, as the higher dose packs a greater psychostimulatory punch via release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. That said, in most cases, insomnia experienced as a side effect during treatment may be contingent upon the time at which phentermine was administered. Since phentermine is thought to last around hours for some individuals, should you administer the drug at around 1: A logical strategy for dealing with phentermine-induced insomnia is to administer the drug earlier in the day e.
Some may benefit from doing something relaxing before bed e. If the insomnia becomes severe, usage of an adjuvant hypnotic sleep inducer under medical supervision may prove helpful. It is possible that you may experience an irregular heartbeat arrhythmia as a result of the excessive simulation induced by phentermine. Those with a history of cardiac events are at high risk of experiencing cardiac abnormalities as a result of phentermine, hence reason as to why the drug is contraindicated in these individuals.
A reason as to why phentermine may cause irregular heartbeat has to do with the fact that it constricts peripheral blood vessels. Constriction of peripheral blood vessels increases blood pressure, which can affect blood flow to the heart, as well as from the heart. Phentermine can transform relatively docile, happy-go-lucky individuals into grumpy, vengeful monsters.
The irritability is largely a result of the fact that the drug ramps up sympathetic nervous system function significantly, thereby perpetuating a chronic state of the freeze-fight-flight response. Really the only way to decrease this irritability is to: Likely the most effective method for reducing irritability is to cut back on phentermine dosing. Not everyone will experience itching as a side effect of phentermine, but those who do claim that it drives them bananas.
If itching is accompanied by a skin rash, this could be a sign of a serious allergic reaction to phentermine or a potential interaction between phentermine and another medication. Those who experience itching [especially with a rash] should consult a medical doctor as soon as possible to rule out serious drug-related complications. Upon stopping treatment, the itching should eventually subside if it was caused by the phentermine. Some phentermine users theorize that itching could be caused by ingredients within certain preparations of the drug.
If you switch to another brand or version of phentermine and the itching abates, chances are it may have been triggered by a minor allergy to a non-active additive. While taking phentermine, you may notice changes in your libido sexual desire. Some users will experience a significant increase in libido, possibly to the extent of phentermine-induced hypersexuality.
It makes sense that a libido spike could occur among phentermine users due to the fact that the drug is stimulating central catecholamine release. Some individuals really enjoy the bolstered libido as a side effect, whereas others may find a significant libido increase to be distracting. That said, not everyone taking phentermine reports an increase in sex drive. Others have reported reductions in libido to the extent that the drug makes them disinterested in sexual pursuits.
A decreased sex drive may be related to the fact that phentermine can cause stress and anxiety. Some users have also reported that the libido changes may be transient and diminish after a week or two of consistent treatment. All users unhappy with the libido increase or decrease from phentermine should discuss it with a medical professional. You may notice that phentermine has a significant impact on your mood throughout treatment. Significant shifts in mood may occur during the first few weeks of treatment as a result of your body adjusting to supraphysiological concentrations of stimulatory neurotransmitters.
Over time, you may notice that the euphoria fades, possibly as a result of decreased endogenous catecholamine production and increased receptor counts to deal with the heightened release of norepinephrine. Eventually a person who was previously euphoric on phentermine could become depressed. Others may report unpredictable negative mood swings from anger to sadness to anxiety. A subset of those taking phentermine will experience muscle cramps as a side effect. The muscle cramps may be isolated to a particular area of the body such as the back, legs, arms, etc.
There are several possible ways by which phentermine may be causing you to cramp up during treatment including: Replenishing water stores is critical, especially among those who experience a drug-induced diuretic effect and frequent urination. Ensuring that your body is getting enough potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium may improve muscle cramps experienced during treatment.
If your muscles remain cramped despite ramping up water and electrolyte intake, you may want to evaluate whether the drug is increasing your muscle tension. Since phentermine increases sympathetic nervous system activation, some individuals will notice that the tension within their musculature increases. To counteract this tension, it may help to engage in relaxation exercises e.
You may also want to determine whether reducing your phentermine dose decreases muscle tension. When first starting phentermine, many users report severe bouts of nausea. Some users will find that the nausea only lasts for a week or two and subsides once the body has fully adapted to the ongoing administration of phentermine. Nausea could also be caused by gastrointestinal irritation associated with taking phentermine on an empty stomach.
A medical doctor should be able to help you determine why phentermine is causing you to feel nauseous, as well as figure out how to attenuate this nausea. Ways to deal with nausea may include: That said, if the nausea is intense and causes you to vomit on a daily basis, phentermine discontinuation will be necessary.
While using phentermine, you may experience palpitations as a side effect. Palpitations are defined as noticeably irregular, rapid, or strong heart beats as a result of agitation or exertion. As was mentioned earlier, any heart rhythm irregularities experienced during phentermine treatment should be evaluated by a cardiologist. Nonetheless, these palpitations may significantly increase your anxiety level due to the fact that they feel highly uncomfortable.
To reduce likelihood of palpitations, decreasing phentermine dosing is a viable option, as this will reduce sympathetic output. Alterations in blood flow may explain some palpitations you experience. This spike in anxiety may reinforce the future occurrence of palpitations, resulting in more palpitations and anxiety. It is not uncommon for phentermine to increase mental and physical stimulation to such an extent, that users are unable to sit still or remain calm.
Restlessness is a common side effect of phentermine and is likely a result of the fact that the drug increases mental and physical arousal. This may lead you to feel as if you have too much energy for your own good, especially in settings such as at work or school. This restlessness is synonymous with hyperactivity and is characterized by hyperarousal. To decrease the restlessness, it is necessary to combat the hyperarousal.
Some ways by which a person may be able to decrease their restlessness include: Another logical strategy is to decrease phentermine dosing or work with your doctor to find a safe adjuvant substance that enhances relaxation. Keep in mind that those with an already-anxious predisposition may become restless even at low doses of phentermine.
Should restlessness interfere with your ability to remain calm, focused, and productive you may need to cease phentermine usage. Though a libido increase or decrease may occur in many users, some men will experience impotence erectile dysfunction as a side effect. Among the men that experience erectile dysfunction as a side effect of phentermine, some claim that it diminishes within several weeks of treatment.
Even more disconcerting may be the fact that phentermine can temporarily cause shrinkage of the genitals possibly resulting in some embarrassment. Both men and women using phentermine may experience anorgasmia or the inability to orgasm as a result of an overactive sympathetic nervous system. Getting enough sleep, keeping stress to a minimum, and consuming sufficient nutrients may be helpful for reversing drug-induced sexual dysfunction.
A skin rash as a result of phentermine should be promptly evaluated by a medical professional. Skin rashes may appear isolated to one specific area of the body such as your stomach, or may be widespread across multiple regions of the body. Some individuals will notice red blotches across their skin, whereas others may notice raised bumps. A skin rash could also occur as a result of hormonal changes that occur during phentermine treatment, ultimately causing dry skin.
Moreover, decreased caloric intake may result in nutrient deficiencies that lead some individuals to develop a rash. Be sure that your hormones stay within a healthy range and that you are still eating a nutrient-dense diet while taking phentermine to avoid skin abnormalities. Phentermine may also disrupt your sleep as a result of provoking the side effect of anxiety. For a lucky subset of phentermine users, the sleep disturbances will diminish after several weeks of treatment as their body adapts to the drug.
A sleep specialist should be able to compare your sleep architecture before treatment and during treatment with phentermine and explain whether any deleterious changes have occurred. It may be tough to deal with sleep disturbances, especially if they are impairing your ability to function throughout the day. A rare adverse reaction to phentermine that some individuals may experience is suicidal thoughts.
It may be helpful to understand that any drug altering your neurochemistry can deleteriously affect your mood, perception, and trigger suicidal thoughts. Phentermine modulates neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin each of which can affect mood. Although the modulation of these neurotransmitters may be tolerated well by certain individuals, others may end up feeling suicidal.
Users with neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression should be carefully monitored while taking phentermine. Furthermore, anyone abusing phentermine such as by taking supratherapeutic doses may be at risk for suicidal thoughts, possibly accompanied by drug-induced psychosis hallucinations, delusions , etc. In other cases, suicidal thoughts may be experienced between phentermine doses such as when it wears off due to downregulation in endogenous catecholamine production.
Anyone experiencing suicidal thoughts should work closely with a medical professional to correct drug-induced neurochemical imbalances.